This guide explains how to install Archlinux creating a Raid (1) and LVM.
The guide can be general, because the steps to create a software raid and LVM management is the same on every Linux system.
The RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is defined by wikipedia as: technology that provides increased storage functions and reliability through redundancy.
Definition that I can share.
The use of a RAID system allows for some margin of safety with respect to a disk-failure. For more info about the RAID you can read the information on wikipedia.
In this guide we will use a RAID 1, but can easily be extended to a RAID 5.
For a RAID 1 configuration requires at least two discs, while in a raid 5 will need at least 3.
Our machine has 2 SATA disks (sda and sdb) and a ide cd.
We start the machine with the installation CD (I chose the core version).
AT the login prompt type root as user and then press RETER (the password is not set).
The first step is to set the keyboard in italian (but if you’re reading here maybe you do not need)
[root@archiso ~]# loadkeys it Loading /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/it.map.gz
If you want you can continue setting the network and enable ssh to run the installation remotely (as in this case).
[root@archiso ~]# ifconfig eth0 172.17.13.116 netmask 255.255.255.224 [root@archiso ~]# route add default gw 172.17.13.123 [root@archiso ~]# /etc/rc.d/sshd start
If you want to reach external sites will need to set the dns on /etc/resolv.conf file. Another task will be to provide a password to root user using the passwd command or it will not log in via ssh.
After the login we go to disk partitioning.
The partition layout will be the following:
- 100MB partition (sda1) to the bootloader which will then be mounted at / boot (RAID 1)
- 1GB swap partition (sda2 raid 1)
- the rest of the disc (sda3) for the system and the user’s home (also in a raid 1 but can also be done in raid 5)
The boot partition can not be created with a raid 5 because the boot loader (grub) is not able to access this type of partitions.
The partitioning is made by cfdisck:
[root@archiso ~]# cfdisk /dev/sda
From the screen, select NEW, Primary, set the size to 100 (MB), at the start of free space ( Beginning ),andthen apply the flag for the boot ( bootable ). The partition type will be FD (Linux raid autodetec).
Proceed as above for the swap, taking care to select the new file size and NOT setting the boot flag, the type will always FD.
The rest of the disk space will be used for actual data (root and home) always FD.
After partitioning, you save the partition table by selecting the WRITE command.
These operations are performed on all hard drives you have available.
To speed things up you can make a copy of the partition table of the first disk and then copy it onto others.
To copy, type
[root@archiso ~]# sfdisk -d /dev/sda > table
To set to the new disk
[root@archiso ~]# sfdisk /dev/sdb < table Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ... OK Disk /dev/sdb: 1566 cylinders, 255 heads, 63 sectors/track sfdisk: ERROR: sector 0 does not have an msdos signature /dev/sdb: unrecognized partition table type Old situation: No partitions found New situation: Units = sectors of 512 bytes, counting from 0 Device Boot Start End #sectors Id System /dev/sdb1 * 63 192779 192717 fd Linux raid autodetect /dev/sdb2 192780 2184839 1992060 fd Linux raid autodetect /dev/sdb3 2184840 25157789 22972950 fd Linux raid autodetect /dev/sdb4 0 - 0 0 Empty Successfully wrote the new partition table Re-reading the partition table ... If you created or changed a DOS partition, /dev/foo7, say, then use dd(1) to zero the first 512 bytes: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/foo7 bs=512 count=1 (See fdisk(8).)
Check with cfdisk that everything went well
[root@archiso ~]# cfdisk /dev/sdb
Now you can move on to creating the raid. The first thing to do is to load the modules to use the raid, will be used only for the module raid1, raid5 in this case is unnecessary
[root@archiso ~]# modprobe raid1 [root@archiso ~]# modprobe raid5
Now you can actually create the raid, to do so using the mdadm utility, please refer to its manual for further information.
To create the first array for the boot partition, type:
[root@archiso ~]# mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 --metadata=0.90 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 mdadm: array /dev/md1 started.
The –metadata=0.90 parameter is to solve a problem that otherwise would install grub to the partition returned error “Filesystem type unknown, partition type 0xfd“.
Now we create the array for swap and then the data:
[root@archiso ~]# mdadm --create /dev/md2 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2 mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and may not be suitable as a boot device. If you plan to store '/boot' on this device please ensure that your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use --metadata=0.90 Continue creating array? y mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata mdadm: array /dev/md2 started. [root@archiso ~]# mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and may not be suitable as a boot device. If you plan to store '/boot' on this device please ensure that your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use --metadata=0.90 Continue creating array? y mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata mdadm: array /dev/md3 started.
In the event that the partition of the data you wanted to use the raid 5, the command would be (at least 3 disks):
mdadm --create /dev/md3 --level=5 --raid-devices=3 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 /dev/sdc3
and the device / dev/sdcX added to every line of the above.
Now you can check the status of the raid by
[root@archiso ~]# cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] md3 : active raid1 sdb3 sda3 11485379 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] [======>..............] resync = 30.8% (3541248/11485379) finish=2.6min speed=49579K/sec md2 : active raid1 sdb2 sda2 996018 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] md1 : active raid1 sdb1 sda1 96256 blocks [2/2] [UU] unused devices:
To continue you must not wait for the synchronization of the array.
After the creation of the raid can go to the LVM configuration.
To know what LVM is and how it works can be read http://sourceware.org/lvm2/.
The first step is to load the module
[root@archiso ~]# modprobe dm-mod
Now it is time to create the pv (Physical Volume)
[root@archiso ~]# pvcreate /dev/md3 Physical volume "/dev/md3" successfully created
and can be controlled by
[root@archiso ~]# pvdisplay "/dev/md3" is a new physical volume of "10.95 GiB" --- NEW Physical volume --- PV Name /dev/md3 VG Name PV Size 10.95 GiB Allocatable NO PE Size 0 Total PE 0 Free PE 0 Allocated PE 0 PV UUID yMtr3S-0Tl0-Vbuy-dEhV-jx98-1ucX-uts1iY
Now let’s create the vg (Volume Group) dataarray
[root@archiso ~]# vgcreate dataarray /dev/md3 Volume group "dataarray" successfully created
To verify it:
[root@archiso ~]# vgdisplay --- Volume group --- VG Name dataarray System ID Format lvm2 Metadata Areas 1 Metadata Sequence No 1 VG Access read/write VG Status resizable MAX LV 0 Cur LV 0 Open LV 0 Max PV 0 Cur PV 1 Act PV 1 VG Size 10.95 GiB PE Size 4.00 MiB Total PE 2804 Alloc PE / Size 0 / 0 Free PE / Size 2804 / 10.95 GiB VG UUID xR51Xu-i34F-hcoP-N1Wp-S1Cm-j2AS-EGghoN
What remains now is to create the lv (Logical Volume) that will become the volumes on which you mount the / and / home
[root@archiso ~]# lvcreate --size 7.9G --name root dataarray Rounding up size to full physical extent 7.90 GiB Logical volume "root" created [root@archiso ~]# lvcreate --size 3.0G --name home dataarray Logical volume "home" created [root@archiso ~]# lvdisplay --- Logical volume --- LV Name /dev/dataarray/root VG Name dataarray LV UUID YRXHC0-L4yv-4Nnk-d6kS-SPEo-Q6kK-xbuz78 LV Write Access read/write LV Status available # open 0 LV Size 7.90 GiB Current LE 2023 Segments 1 Allocation inherit Read ahead sectors auto - currently set to 256 Block device 253:0 --- Logical volume --- LV Name /dev/dataarray/home VG Name dataarray LV UUID x93XWk-7Qut-hvZ2-pqhB-Qq7s-YeeC-4ABdWX LV Write Access read/write LV Status available # open 0 LV Size 3.00 GiB Current LE 768 Segments 1 Allocation inherit Read ahead sectors auto - currently set to 256 Block device 253:1
If you want you can format the array and the LV, but this step can be performed during the installation to do, here are the commands just for completeness:
[root@archiso ~]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/md1 mke2fs 1.41.11 (14-Mar-2010) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=1024 (log=0) Fragment size=1024 (log=0) Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks 24096 inodes, 96256 blocks 4812 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=1 Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008 12 block groups 8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group 2008 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729 Writing inode tables: done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override. [root@archiso ~]# mkswap /dev/md2 mkswap: /dev/md2: warning: don't erase bootbits sectors on whole disk. Use -f to force. Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 996012 KiB no label, UUID=1bc5ded3-8ef6-4e3a-9d1b-6f6b146d05fc [root@archiso ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/dataarray/home mke2fs 1.41.11 (14-Mar-2010) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks 196608 inodes, 786432 blocks 39321 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=805306368 24 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8192 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912 Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (16384 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 23 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override. [root@archiso ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/dataarray/root mke2fs 1.41.11 (14-Mar-2010) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks 518144 inodes, 2071552 blocks 103577 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=2122317824 64 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8096 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632 Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (32768 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
Now you can proceed with the installation of the distribution. Type
[root@archiso ~]# /arch/setup
We proceed following the steps provided by the installer: Select the installation source (in this case the CD), we set the time zone (optional), and goes to the preparation of discs (Prepare hard drive).
The preparation of the hdd must be done manually (option 3 Manually configure block devices and filesystems and mountpoints), select the option to take the device directly from /dev and then set the filesystem (fs), a potential label and mount point :
- /dev/md1 select ext2 as fs and /boot as mount point
- /dev/md2 as swap partition
- /dev/mapper/dataarray-home select ext4 as fs and /home as mount point
- /dev/mapper/dataarray-root select ext4 as fs and / as mount point
After the disk management selecting the software to install (dase + base-devel) and verify that at least for the raid and lvm packages are marked for installation (lvm e mdad).
Before performing the steps to configure the system open another shell by pressing ALT+F2 to re-create the configuration file of the raid (/etc/mdadm.conf)
[root@archiso ~]# mv /mnt/etc/mdadm.conf /mnt/etc/mdadm.conf.bk [root@archiso ~]# mdadm --examine --scan >> /mnt/etc/mdadm.conf
press ALT + F1 to return to the installation and configure the system:
on file /etc/mkinitcpio.conf add mdadm and lvm2 to line HOOKS before the filesystem
HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata mdadm lvm2 filesystems"
on file /etc/rc.conf set
and finally in /etc/fstab check mount points.
These are fundamental changes, then clearly you can run all those who serve you as the demons start-up network settings, root password etc.
Now through the installer you can install the bootloader and the installation is completed.
That remains is to reboot, and enjoy the system in RAID and LVM.
To verify that everything went well so it is possible, after the first reboot and waiting that the arrays are synchronized, remove a disc and make sure your system is always able to start and be used. Done this you can proceed with the detachment of the other disk, but after placing the first and rebuilt the array.
To add a disk or partition to an array just run
[root@araida ~]# mdadm --add /dev/md3 /dev/sda3
this place into md3 array the partition sda3.
If grub is installed only on a disc, it can run on other typing
[root@araida ~]# grub grub> device (hd0) /dev/sdb grub> root (hd0,0) grub> setup (hd0) grub> quit
AND THAT’S ALL FOLKS